Drug abuse is the use of some substances which affect the functions of body negatively. Despite their damage to the body, their usage cannot be dropped. When one becomes addicted, the symptoms of deprivation start gradually  increase in parallel with the frequency of usage and dosage.[1] Drugs are chemical substances which make people on numbed, inert, and out of control. They also cause addiction and bring about psychological, behavioral, and physical changes in the body of a person using it.

Drug use is high fashion among young people nowadays despite its negative effects on the daily life and social relations. It is also a vicious cycle for the junkies since the body needs more drug each passing day and the usual dosage does not suffice. Therefore, many junkies overdose on drugs.

When the addict is not able to find drugs or need to decrease the frequency or  the amount, he/she starts to feel deprivation. Deprivation includes physical and psychological problems affecting his/her life in an unfavorable way.

The most common symptoms of deprivation are as follows:

  • Tendency to Suicide
  • Offensiveness
  • Aggression
  • Tantrum
  • Uneasiness

Despite all these troubles, if the addict still continues using drugs and does not accept the proper treatment, it is most likely that he/she faces serious brain and heart problems. Even he/she may lose his/her life.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), drug addiction is described as follows:

  • Intense desire and need to get and use drugs
  • Tendency to increase of current dose
  • Intense sensitivity against the psychological and physical effects of drug
  • Attributing great importance to drug
  • Constant use of drugs preventing the addict from carrying out his/her obligations at school, home, or work
  • Being constantly affected by drugs while driving or in dangerous situations.
  • The repeated us of drugs cause problems in social life.[2]

Causes of Drug Addiction

There is no only one reason for one to start using drugs. Family problems, bad friend relationships, incorrect perception regarding drug use, psychological problems, being a child of an addicted parent, the absence of care and attention of the family upon the children are all among the factors leading people to start using drugs.

Risk Factors in Children and Young People for Substance Abuse

Biological Factors

Genetic Features

Family History of Alcohol or Drug Abuse

Family History of Mood Disorder and Impulse Control

Behavioral Disorder or Antisocial Personality Disorder
Psychological and Behavioral Factors

Neurocognitive Changes

Mood Changes

Anxiety Disorders

Behavioral Disorders


Learning Disabilities

Lowness in Social Skills

Positive Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Substance Abuse

Hostility and Aggression

Low Self-Esteem


Negative Life Events


Physical Trauma
Family Relationships Factors

Alcohol, Substance Abuse and Gamble Problem in Family

Positive Attitude of Family Toward Alcohol, Substance Abuse

and Gamble

Low Family Support

Low Parenthood Ability

Insufficient Parent While Monitoring Their Children
School Factors

Academic Success

Negative, Undisciplined and Insecure School Environment

Low Expectation of Teachers

Weak School Policy Against Substance Abuse

Low Sense of School Responsibility

Withdrawn or Agressive Behavior in Classroom
Friend Factors

Drug Addicted Friends

Confirmative Attitudes and Behaviors Against Alcohol,

Substance Abuse and Gamble

Having Friends Who Have Behavioral Disorder

Rejection by Friends

Low Social Abilities
Society Factors

Restricted Economical and Social Opportunity

Insufficient Education Resources

High Crime Rate

High Migration Rate

Acceptance of Alcohol, Substance Abuse, and Gamble 

Resource: https://npistanbul.com/cocuk-ve-genclerde-madde-bagimliligi-ve-tedavisi

Preventive Factors                           

Unfortunately, it is very easy to reach such substances everywhere in the world. Therefore, there are many addicted people in our society. Although the destructive effects of such substances are already known in societies, the struggle against it is not enough.

It seems that this insufficiency  arises from the lack of information about the preventive actions. Therefore, this part of this study will evaluate how substance abuse should be prevented.



As it is mentioned above, substance abuse is one of the most common and important problems of the modern era and it has become a high fashion  among young people. The difficulties of puberty, the intensive tempo of daily life, indifferent family, bad social environment, bad-tempered friends and easy supply of drugs are all considered the main reasons for being a victim of substance.

People who are not aware of or just do not care about the danger  find themselves in the trap of drugs at the end of the day because of the sense of curiosity, and the feeling of being a center of attention. In the end, unfortunately, this process ends with death.

Public spots, informative studies, educational programs for parents and young people about the substance abuse are considered among the preventive actions. Thanks to these preventive works, people acquiring enough information about the fatal effects of drugs try to protect themselves from this deadly problem. This helps both the individuals and the societies become more healthy both psychologically and physically.

In addition to all these, psychotherapy, medical treatment, social support, arts, sports, and other related activities can also be used as alternative treatment methods. As a matter of fact, the best method for fighting against drug abuse is never to start using drug.

[1] “Madde Bağımlılığı”, Yeşilay, https://www.yesilay.org.tr/tr/bagimlilik/madde-bagimliligi